Arturo Giráldez

Arturo Giráldez is Professor of Spanish Literature at the University of the Pacific. He received a PhD in Spanish Literature from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1990 and another PhD in History from the University of Amsterdam in 1999. Author of many articles on global monetary history, Giráldez is co-editor of Metals and Monies in an Emerging Global Economy (Variorum 1997), European Entry into the Pacific: Spain and the Acapulco-Manila Galleons (Variorum 2001), Studies in Pacific History: Economics, Politics, and Migration (Ashgate 2002), and Studies in Global Monetary History, 1470–1800 (Ashgate 2002). He is co-General Editor of a 19-volume series, The Pacific World: Lands, Peoples, and History of the Pacific, 1500–1900 (2000–2003). His collaborative research with Dennis O. Flynn has been featured in the New York Times (2 December 2000) and The Economist (25 August 2001).

Papers Published in World Economics:

Cycles of Silver

Absent a workable definition of the term ‘globalization’, debates today lack intellectual rigor. Most consider globalization a 20th-century (even post-1945) phenomenon. In fact, globalization was born when Manila was founded as a Spanish entrepôt in 1571. Connections across the Pacific Ocean (one third of Earth’s surface area) finally linked Asia with the Americas (about another third of the globe); American linkages with the Afro-Eurasian ‘Old World’ (approximately one third of Earth’s surface) had previously existed since 1492. Immense demand for silver in China, the world’s dominant economy, induced global connections. Europeans were middlemen. Multi-century commercial, epidemiological, ecological, and demographic interactions were unleashed at a planetary level. These historical forces heavily influence global relations today.

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