Improving Economic Society

Mitsuhiko Iyoda

Published: March 2023

This article identifies ways to improve economic welfare by dealing with observed market failures in the capitalist system. Rather than taking the more familiar theoretical approach, we make the case for broad targeting policies, which would bring welfare improvement in terms of both GDP and the genuine progress indicator (GPI). Several recent developments are expected to make further contributions to improving both measures. Efforts to address sustainability and stability in the international context, NPOs and ESG investing are expected to grow, an encouraging sign of social progress and the advancement of science. Through the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine War, we have learned that international peace and the generosity of developed countries are necessary to create and sustain a fair and just society. We envision a complementary relationship between GDP and GPI in which the GDP framework is used for policy purposes and the GPI concept is used for monitoring performance from a welfare perspective.

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