Peter S. Heller is AGIP Professor of International Economics at the Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. He was formerly Deputy Director of the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund. He has written extensively on issues of economic development and poverty reduction, fiscal policy, ageing populations, public expenditure policy, health care reforms in developing countries, pension and civil service reform, climate change, privatization, and globalization. His book Who Will Pay? Coping with Ageing Societies, Climate Change, and other Long-Term Fiscal Challenges was published in 2003.