Nemat Shafik, known as Minouche, became Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund in April 2011. Previous roles include Permanent Secretary of the UK’s Department for International Development, Vice President, Private Sector and Infrastructure at the World Bank, and senior management in the International Finance Corporation. Dr. Shafik has economics degrees from the University of Massachusetts- Amherst and the London School of Economics. She also holds a D.Phil in Economics from St. Antony’s College, Oxford University. Minouche has chaired several international consultative groups that support microfinance, energy, water and sanitation for the poor, urban development and slum upgrading, and private participation in infrastructure.