James Raymond Vreeland is Associate Professor of Political Science at Yale University. He conducts research in the area of international political economy, exploring a wide range of policy outcomes. His research is most known for its treatment of international institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund, and more recently the World Bank and the United Nations. He teaches courses in comparative politics, political economy, and international relations and also serves on the faculty of Yale’s Program on Ethics, Politics and Economics and the International Studies Program. In addition to articles in numerous journals, Professor Vreeland has written two books: The IMF and Economic Development (Cambridge University Press, 2003), and his latest, an introductory text on the IMF, entitled The International Monetary Fund: Politics of Conditional Lending (Routledge, 2007). He also co-edited Globalization and the Nation State: The Impact of the IMF and the World Bank (Routledge, 2006).